What is Intelligence?

What is Intelligence?

AI is the attempt to build computational models of cognitive processes.

AI is about generating representations and procedures that allow machines to perform tasks that would be considered intelligent if performed by a human.

A central tenet of AI is that human-like reasoning is a form of computation that may be identified, formalized and consequently automated.

The need for intelligent machines

Decision making problems that confront people but require expertise:

Engineers Design a VLSI chip to ...
Architects Design a house for HM Prince of Wales
Medics Is this roseola infantum or German measles?
Farmers Should I spray the spuds or pick the turnips
Geo-engineers Is there oil under Jesus?
Students Is xndx = ((x^(n+)1)/n+1) + const?
Mechanics How should I disassemble/assemble this machinery?
Academics Which wine with roast parrot, Smithers?

Natural tasks which we seem to perform effortlessly but which turn out to be the hardest to program into a machine:

Balancing on less than three legs
Avoiding lampposts
Recognizing your girl/boyfriend
Holding hands
Having a conversation

A more formal list of AI problems is as follows:

[¯] General Problem Solvers
[¯] Expert Problem Solvers
  Symbolic maths
  Medical diagnosis
  Chemical analysis
  Geological surveys
  Engineering design
[¯] Game playing
[¯] Theorem proving
[¯] Perception
[¯] Planning
[¯] Natural Language Understanding
[¯] Learning

The overall plan looks like

1 Introduction to AI for engineers
Some basics and core issues
2 Problem solving and Search, impact of different representations
3 Constraints in search
4 Knowledge representation using propositional and first-order logic
5 Resolution theorem proving